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منظور از جرائم اقتصادی چیست؟

در سال ۹۲ قانونگذار در تقسیم بندی جرائم، “جرائم اقتصادی” را نیز اضافه کرده است. بند ب ماده ۱۰۹ قانون مجازات اسلامی ، در مقام تعریف جرائم اقتصادی مقرر کرده است : “جرایم اقتصادی شامل کلاهبرداری و جرائم موضوع تبصره ماده ۳۶ این قانون با رعایت مبلغ مقرر در ان ماده”

قبل از وضع ماده قانونی مذکور، جرائم اقتصادی در قوانین ایران تعریف نشده بود و صرفا قانونی با عنوان ” اخلال در نظام اقتصادی کشور” بدون تعریف دقیق از ان وجود داشت.

با ملاحظه قوانین مذکور، بنظر می رسد قانونگذار منظورش از جرائم اقتصادی صرفا “مالی بودن “موضوع جرم نبوده است. بل وضعیت موضوع جرم و میزان مال موضوع جرم نیز در تشخیص این جرم موثر است.

منظور از وضعیت موضوع جرم یعنی خدشه و اخلال در نظام اقتصاد دولتی و عمومی جامعه توسط مرتکب است که بجز جرم کلاهبردای که علیه اشخاص خصوصی امکان وقوع دارد.
در جرائم اقتصادی ، اخلال در نظام اقتصاد دولتی یا اقتصاد عمومی جامعه از ارکان اصلی محققه این جرائم است.

اما میزان مال مورد موضوع جرم باید صد میلیون تومان یا بیشتر ارزش داشته باشد.

در خصوص اعمال سیاست کیفری افتراقی که شامل رعایت دادرسی خاص و ویژه است. در دستگاه قضایی ایران، نمونه آن تاسیس مجتمع قضایی ویژه امور اقتصادی در تهران است.
اینکه دستگاه قضایی در رسیدگی به جرائم مذکور چقدر در اعمال سیاست کیفری افتراقی از طریق دادرسی فوری ویا استفاده از قضات متخصص موفق بوده، موضوع قابل تحقیق و پژوهش است.
ولی آنچه موجب امیدواری است توجه به آموزه ها ویافته های جرم شناسی در مبارزه با این جرائم است.

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